The core definition of Halal (Permissible), is based on general Islamic principle where it says everything is Halal by nature “He has also made subservient to you all that is in the heavens and the earth” (Chapter 45, l-jāthiyah:13), non-Halal has been specified as exception, and main exceptions of Halal are: ethanol (Alzeer and Abou Hadeed 2016), blood, pork, carnivores and omnivore animals, food contaminated with non-Halal ingredients and food with potential toxic ingredients that may expose human health to danger.
Proof of Concept can be a source of education.
According to Arabic dictionary Khabith refers to everything which is disgusting and cannot be used as a source of food such as snakes, lizards, scorpions, pests, beetles, and mice. Thus, the concept of Khabith with regard to food, reflects unpleasant and uncomfortable feeling with repulsive action resulted from disagreement between food and humans believe. This is a natural reflection, mostly occur with people following specific lifestyle such as vegetarian, vegan, kosher and Halal. Anything disgusting and repulsive by human's nature, or has potential to harm human's health, no matter if it is described or not in Quran and Hadeeth, it is considered Khabith and non-Halal. Interestingly, cancer in Arabic is also called khabith, thus any ingredients which are potentially carcinogenic is khabith as well.
Spirituality is construed as a combination of positive emotions, meaningful realization of relationship with the Creator, and a sense of satisfaction and accomplishment. Spirituality can be achieved by synchronizing deeds with thoughts that finally leads to tranquillity in the heart.
Tayyib in Arabic means clean and pure, therefore the concept of Tayyib, with regard to food, represents a process through which the food passes through, both objectives: maximum hygiene (clean) and minimum contamination (pure) with any potential toxic, Najis (ritually unclean) and Khabith (impure) ingredients are achievable, but main goal is to achieve satisfactory feeling while taken food. Chicken as a subject is Halal but how chicken is handled, treated, fed, slaughtered will determine if the chicken is Halala Tayyiba or not.
Tranquility is a state of being calm and worry-free, more likely to occur in the presence of environmental features that are associated with peace and quiet (Herzog and Barnes, 1999).
What makes Tayyib unique?
Tayyib objectives are to design a clean and pure process, but what makes tayyib unique is the goal; which is to create a comfortable feeling when food is taken. The comfortable feeling cannot simply be achieved by having healthy, safe and pleasant food, which is essential, but it can be accomplished if what we eat complies well with what we believe. Comfort food, that is selected and influenced by what we believe, is known to improve our mood, make us feel better and give us a sense of well-being (Bublitz et al., 2013; Wansink, Cheney, & Chan, 2003). Therefore, the Tayyib processing of Halal will have positive impact on mood, health and faith practicing “Verily Allah the Exalted is pure (Tayyib). He does not accept but that which is pure (Tayyib)” (Sahih Muslim).
The main stage in Halal certification is conducting the site audit which can be classified into three steps:
1. Documentation review: All documents will be reviewed, in this context, all ingredients are being classified into three categories:
a. Highly critical: Contain either alcohol or derived from animal, where only halal certificate is required
b. Critical: Processed ingredients either extracted from natural product or synthesized in the lab where halal certificate or questionnaire is required
c. Non-critical: Natural and non-processed ingredients where halal certificate or questionnaire or declaration is required.
During documentation control, all ingredients with regards to safety, toxicity and Halal status will be evaluated, the validity of halal certificates are checked, and questionnaires are studied. Finally, the compatibility of storage, lubricant, cleaning agents and packaging material to Halal-Tayyib are verified.
2. Physical/on-site audit: During on-site visit, production line is followed stepwise, and manufacturing premises, equipment and other facilities are ensured to be clean and free from filth, dirt, harmful and non-halal elements. All Standard Operating Procedures (SOP) for maintaining hygiene and safety are ensured to be adhered to Halal Guidelines (Halim et al. 2015).
3. Review/closing meeting: At the end of the audit, critical remarks are mention, missing documents are presented, request for special procedures are pointed out. The final report will be submitted to the religious committee and decision will be made.
Certifying bodies insists on both physical and spiritual cleanliness “He loves those who keep clean." Chapter 2, Al-Baqarah: 222)“ "And purify your clothes" (Chapter 74, Al-Mudathir: 4), thus, utilizing both concepts, Halal and Tayyib is essential in certifying food and pharmaceutical industries (Sadeeqa 2015). Halal certification cannot be done by religious scholars, as they are unable to deal with all Halal issues, certification required highly qualified scientists particularly in the field of chemistry, food technology or other related science with pharmaceutical background and expert in religious jurisprudence to cover all Halal issues.
Pharmaceutical drugs are derived from a variety of sources; including natural and man-made ingredients. Drugs that include animal ingredients can be active constituents or inactive excipients that are included to produce an effective vehicle for a drug. Many of those ingredients would have implications for patients with different lifestyle. Pharmaceutical companies are becoming more aware of those restrictions, thus active ingredients derived from animals have been substituted with synthetic alternatives, manufactured in the laboratory. Whereas inactive ingredients including those containing ethanol, gelatine, or stearic acid are still posing a challenge for pharmaceuticals.
Most ingredients are chemically manufactured to keep control of the process and maintain the purity of the active ingredients. There are exceptions such as insulin used to treat diabetes, which is derived from animal source, usually from pigs. Gelatine, a common inactive ingredient in pharmaceuticals, made from bones, skin, and connective tissue of animals, primarily from pigs, cattle, fish, and used in capsules and tablets productions. Collagen is another ingredient, produced from animal bones, and used in arthritis, improved skin elasticity, skin moisture, and skin roughness (Porfirio et al. 2016). Hormones like Oestrogen and Oestradiol are produced from female hormones of pregnant mares and used in a variety of medical uses (Cox 1996. Heparin is used as a blood anti-coagulant drug and derived from mucosal tissues of porcine intestine or bovine (cow) lung (Tovar et al. 2013). Stearic acid, made from the fat of cows and pigs (tallow), often used in a salt form such as magnesium stearate which has binding and lubricating properties that help lubricate and aid in the ejection of tablets from the tablet press (Li and Wu 2014). Lactose, the most common animal derive ingredient, used as a carrier and stabilizer. Cysteine, an amino acid, derived from hair that could come from animal’s source and used in hair-care products creams, in some bakery products, and in wound-healing formulations.